1. Act quickly but quietly. Be calm and quiet. Don't lose your head.
2. Make the injured party sit or lie down.
3. See the injury clearly before treating it. Send for a doctor if the
wound is serious.
4. Do not remove more clothing than is necessary to examine the injury.
Always rip, or, if you cannot rip, cut the clothes from the injured
part. Don't pull the clothes off.
5. Give alcoholic stimulants cautiously and slowly, and only when the
patient feels weak or drowsy. Hot coffee or tea will often suffice when
6. Keep from the patient all persons not actually needed to assist you.
7. Do not touch a wound with your fingers. If the wound is dirty,
remove the dirt as well as possible, with the first-aid bandage.
8. Don't pour into the wound any water from your canteen for the
purpose of washing it out or washing the blood from around the wound.
Water often contains germs and the skin around the wound may be dirty.
If water is poured into the wound it carries or washes into the same
these germs and dirt, and the wound will become infected.
9. Heat and moisture increases the activity of the germ of infection.
Therefore keep the wound cool and dry.
10. If the blood is scarlet in color and appears in spurts, send at
once for a doctor and then take the necessary measures (apply a
tourniquet) to stop the flow of blood.
11. If the patient loses consciousness, it will probably be because
insufficient blood is reaching the brain. Lower your patient's head and
give all your attention to stopping the bleeding.